Vowel Spelling/Sound Correspondences - Preparation for Teachers
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Front Vowels Middle Vowels Back Vowels
high ee eve /ee/ or /ē/ oo boot /
i it /ĭ/ oo book /
ae ate /ae/ or /ā/ oe toe /oe/ or /ō/
e extra /ĕ/ au/aw paw /aw/
u up /ŭ/
low a ax /ă/ o pop /ŏ/ low

Diphthongs ie ice /ie/ or /ī/ ue use /ue/ or /ū/ ou/ow out /ou/ oi/oy toy /oy/
r-controlled er/ir/ur fur /er/ ar far /ar/ or for /or/
The Letter Y sky /ie/ or /ī/ foggy /ee/ or /ē/ gym /i/
  • Vowel sounds are determined by tongue placement, height of jaw, and mouth shape.
  • Diphthongs are formed by vowel sounds in which the sound begins as one vowel and moves toward another (as in out and light).
  • Two or more vowel letters spelling one sound are digraphs or trigraphs. These spellings include diphthongs.
  • Go To Accurate Vowel Representations - Preparation for Teachers